Saturday, March 2, 2019
Nano Technology in Oil Industry Essay
IntroductionNanotech applications & Nanoparticles have been successfully used in boring mud for the Last 40-50 years. Recently the other disciplines of the crude crude fossil oil color application, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as exploration, primary and assisted achievement, monitoring, refining and distri entirelyion, atomic number 18 approaching nanotechnologies collectible to its immense Potential for Confronting challenges, per pee-peeance improvement & cost. Especially in ultra-deep pissing and artic environments, Severe reservoir conditions (high-temperature and high-pressure formations), nonconventional resources of energy,Heavy oils, tight torpedo, tar sandsreservoirs)Present nanotech applications in oil industryMost of the major oil and service companies, such as BP, ConocoPhillips, Shell, Total and Schlumberger.done research in exploiting nanotechnologies to improve oil and squander production. Developing subsurface small- and nanosensors that could be inject ed in oil and gas wellbores & realisation of nanotech potentialityities applied to EOR issues. Recent published replys speak well-nigh Single-Walled-Carbon-Nano Tube (SWNT) / silicon dioxide nanohybrids, active at the fluid interface, if delivered at the O/W interface, would play off and condition the oil properties to increase oil mobilization, hence oil recovery. Researchers ars analysing the potential benefits derived by the application of nanomaterials, nanofluids and nanomembranes in oil industry. Sensors Nanomaterials atomic number 18 unparallelled lances for the development of sensors and imaging-contrast agents payable to the squargon alterations in their optical, magnetic and electrical properties, along with their ability to form (electrically and/or geometrically) percolated structures at paltry volume fractions. Such nanomaterials, when combined with pert fluids, can be used as extremely sensitive down(p) hole sensors for temperature, pressure and stress eve n downstairs extreme conditions.The net evolution of instruments for oil prospects is perceived to be nanorobots, which should really provide an impressive mapping of the reservoir. Nanorobots still remain a dream,shared by the medical and oil sectors. But advances in nanosensors miniaturization are becoming a reality. Coatings A corroding-resistant material solution represented by nanometric thin filmsand composites with nanostructured fillers are in the advanced stage. corrosion-resistant materials are the just ready to happen nanotechnology- found applications,due to its relatively low risk, high effectiveness and low complexity. Nanocoated, wear-resistant probes, made of tungsten carbide or group B nitride, enhance the life span and readiness of the drilling systems. The same applies to the nano-layered corrosion inhibitors in pipes or tanks, which creates a permanent molecular coating on the surface of metallic elements, eliminating corrosion. Nanofluids and nanomaterial s for drilling and completion Nanotechnology has opened the development of smart fluids for drilling, production and stimulation applications.Nanofluids and nano-based additives exhibit major advancement by raise drilling by adding benefits like wettability alteration, improve drag reduction and sand consolidation. A specialized petroleum laboratory has authentic an advanced fluid assorted with nanosized particles and superfine powder that significantly improves the drilling speed and can fade formation damage in near wellbore zone. With the synthesis of a untested breed of elastomeric composites filled with carbon nanotubes or other strongly anisotropic nano-objects, a stronger, tougher and more rugged drilling tools and apparatus will be manufactured in future. These tools will ensure a significant pack reduction and facilitate self-sensing elements to be interrogated for the real-time monitoring of the intimately scathing parts.Another important technique in the developme nt of super-hard materials is the use of nanostructured dispersed-hardened materials .First multiplication of nanotech applications for improving hydraulic fracturing are represented by BakerHughess nanostructured metal composites, combined by magnesium, aluminium and other alloys, which offer both potency at lower weight and the ability to dissolve away under certain conditions. Another example is the proppant produced by Oxane Materials, constituted by nano-structured ceramic material which is as strong as but lighter as ceramic proppant. A possible solution for mitigating fines, by nanocrystals for treating hydraulic rend proppant packs to fix formation fines.Nanotechnology application for reservoir monitoring & for enhanced oil recovery Nanomembranes A newborn generation of lightweight and strong nanomembranes is creation developed and employed, Which will remarkably enhancethe exploitation of tight gas by providing efficient methods for removing impurities, separating gas streams and enabling GTL production. Nanoporous and nanoparticulate materials are also instead encouraging to manage the Health, Safety, Environmental, risks arise due to presence of CO2 and H2S in hydrocarbon mixtures.Nanotechnology application for reservoir monitoring The petroleum sector and the medical realize the dream of a nanosensor able to provide in-situ information about the systems under analysis. The most complicated and Complex challenge faced by oil industry is that it requires strong technical improvements in injected nano sensors into the reservoir, to face place and recovery, protection in harsh environments , 3-D location, sensors powering and data storage & retrieving. For example, the quantity of oil present in a reservoir could be assessed based on the amount of material lost or retained during the stumble time, or the extreme conditions (temperature, pressure, salinity gradient) at which the nanoparticles were exposed and for how long, could be determined. The intellect can be to pump nano-sensors in the reservoir periodically so as to regularly monitor changes in the well/field conditions.In turn, this could result in enhanced production efficiency.Several possible applications and exploitation schemes are currently under study with nano-devices injected into a reservoir. A novel paramagnetic nanoparticles into proppant structures together with these smart proppant could help in mapping the fracture efficiency using detectable contrast agents. Further nanoparticles could preferably segregate into incompatible fluid portions, hence providing enhanced moving-picture show of the reservoir and, fianlly , improved oil recovery,due to their miniscule dimensions, increased surface area and high mobility. Nanotechnology application for enhanced oil recovery The greatest challenge at present is the fortuity of increasing the efficiency of hydrocarbon production, both by improving the current EOR methodologies and by developing alternativ e technologies.The current researches indicate the new generation nano-agents should vary the properties of the injected fluid, in terms of viscosity, density, thermal conductivity and specific heat and modify the fluid-rock moveion properties, .The use of two different types of polysilicon nanoparticles (one nanometer-scale) in oil palmimproves wettability, to enhance urine supply injection and improve oil recovery. The application of paramagnetic nanoparticles for EOR , possess a unique combination of fluidity and capability to interact with a magnetic field. The addition of a surfactant would greatly inhibit the interfacial tension in waterwet reservoirs due to the presence of a dipole moment.The reservoir fluid molecules align, thus reducing the resistance to flow. ConocoPhillips, aims at creating a new class of polymer-type nanoparticles that can be incorporated with EOR injection fluids to improve hydrocarbon recovery by penetrating small cogitate throats without crea tion confine and hence the amount of expensive injection can be decreased.The University of Alaska Fairbanks investigated The casualty of improving gas injection for the Alaska North Slope heavy oil recovery. Metal nanoparticles. reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil. Using super scathing CO2 and Viscosity ReducingInjectant (VRI) saturated by nanoparticles, exploit the thermal properties of nanoparticles for improved heat transfer to heavy oil explore the effects of Poly Di methyl radical Siloxane and metal nanoparticles on density and viscosity for reducing mobility and viscous thumb Phenomena . When dealing with extremely low permeability reservoirs, conventional approaches to water implosion therapy cannot provide recovery factors greater than 0.2. This is mainly due to capillary forces which are very strong in narrow pore channels. With low-permeability reservoir rocks, the direct of purity and filtration of injected water is one of the most important issues for a signifi cant oil recovery.With rocks characterized by a permeability of 0.1 m2 the recovery factor deviates from an clean of 0.4 by less than 10% if particulates in injected water are smaller than 200 nm. Nevertheless, with a rock permeability of 0.05 m2 the recovery factor is dramatically approaching zero with the same particle ssize. A traditional water flooding technique is obviously unproductive in this latter case, unless water is filtered and purified of particulates down to at least 100 nm. Innovative water nano-filters are to be specially designed both to ensure uniform pore throats and the ability to recovery tens of billions of tons of oil. Some feel that oil is fundamentally a nanoliquid, with asphaltenes being the dominant part, flowing in a micro and often nanoscopic environment (i.e., the porous media).According to that,it seems justifiable to consider most of the oil and gas production technologies, reservoir treatments andstimulation as nanotechnologies. below this point of view, current petroleum science is relying on the study and mold of physical chemical phenomena occurring at the nanometer scale and the ability to justly model the reservoir flow plays an important role. However, a suitable tool to reliably describe coupled phenomena is still missing. The present approach being discussed is, for creating nanorobots to monitor individual pores and channels and hydrocarbon flow, exchange information and identify zones which rise the extraction or the injection of water.CONCLUSIONNanotechnology Application to the oil industry has an immense potential & benefits. Some applications are already available,while others could come from Complementing the solutions developed for the biomedical, automotive, aerospace, chemical and, textile Industries. Well drilling, fracturing and cementing as well as new generation membranes for gas separation already rely on nanotech solutions. At present efforts are being made to design nano-sensors for reservoir char acterization and monitoring and to produce nano-fluids for improving EOR processes. Promising results have been obtained from laboratory experiment, but field tests are still in progress..The future of nanotechnology applications is remarkable.