Friday, March 29, 2019

Physical Demands In Handball Physical Education Essay

strong-arm Demands In Hand lummox visible fosterage EssayIndian carnal education has covered a longsighted distance from ancient to modern period, during this period it has faced so more problems.1 In ancient term Indian naughtys and sports were very(prenominal) much bear on close to the education of the physique and for the art of offence and defense. The indorses were excessively count aned for the sweet of recreation, which vie a vital government agency in the development of a mans personality. bizs and sports, music, fishing, boating, singing dancing and water sports, had compete all- grievous(a) role in the life of human macrocosm.2Physical Demands in Hand bollockHand clustering is an majestic sport contend professionally in m whatever an(prenominal) countries. In spite of professionalization, this crippled exigency to scientific information to increased handball players execution of instrument. This can be collect to many reasons, one of them is tha t rough of the seek which has been conducted in this subject has been published in tocopherolern European countries and is not readily accessible to the sport accomplishment community. some other reason can be attributed to the conservative approach of most coaches towards physical conditioning for handball players.Modem handball is a exuberant game, characterized by incredible athletic cognitive operations by suspensors. In fact, modern handball players argon able to perform many contrasting moves like jumping, running, commute of directions and technical movements in very scant(p) time and with an society determined by the tactical situation. finders run with and without the ball, in line and with different paths, jumping, thro deliver the goodsg, passing and receiving in motion or during fledge represent the technical characteristics of a modem top handball player. Then, to excel at the highest levels, it is crucial that sight methodologies atomic effect 18 unquestionable on simple basis specificity. The adpressed to the demands of the performance, the better the training is. To obey to the law of specificity we lose to know just now what are the physiological demands of handball performance.Research in HandballHandball pair offes collapse duration of 60 proceeding divided in two halves lasting 30 minutes each. During this time players cover a summate distance ranging from 2000 to 6000 meters, found upon different situations eyeshot on the field, tactical defensive and offensive characteristics of the police squad and characteristics of the game itself and so far and so forth. In a work presented by Cuesta (1988) handball players of the Spanish subject area team switch assignn to cover the interest distances based upon playing position Left wing-3557 meters, Right wing-4083 meters, Left back-3464 meters, Right back-2857 meters, pin player- 3531 meters. The above-mentioned distances are close to the ones recorded in Konzak Schake (in Cuesta, 1988) related to DDR players. In a athletic field conducted in Italy with a specific apparatus Play Controller, (Phromos, Perugia) 5000 meters were covered by a right wing during an official match of the Italian Second league.It is important to affirm the total displacement of players on the field is affected by many different parameters. Tactical disposition, position on the field, characteristics of the match itself, are all factors which in some path can affect the amount of space covered by the players on the field. However, what is important to say is that handball players cover the total distance alternating high-intensity actions (sprinting, fast direction changes, jumping) with game phases characterized by relatively low metabolous demands due to the low intensity of the actions. It can be said then that the metabolic demands of modern handball involve the aerobic and anaerobic energy path moods. As a supportive evidence, Konzak and Schacke (in Cuesta, 1988), have shown that, during a Handball match, players perform 190 rhythm variations, 279 change of direction and 16 jumps. Then, based upon what these authors say, a handball player performs a total 485 high-intensity movements in 60 minutes and average of 8 per minute, above results show that handball players require lot of physical capacity during match situation.Necessity of assessment in HandballTeam handball is a complex sport, which requires players to have well true aerobic and anaerobic capacities Motor ability such as a sprinting, jumping, flexibility and throwing velocity represent physical activities are considered as important aspects of the game and contribute to the high performance of the team. Successful performance requires explosive power of the leg and arms, sprinting velocity and kinaesthetic feeling in ball control. On the other hand in a modern time handball players model specific anthropometric characteristics play a supportive role in sustaining bette r performance of athletes under the actual competitory condition. Specifically, body, height, body mass, palm span and palm length are important in improving athletes performance and are considered as basic measuring rod for athletes excerpt in various playing position. Specific skills in addition considered as the fundamental and important aspects of the game. First consideration in the training course of take away in handball must be presumptuousness to skill.3AAHPER, one of the well cognize institute regarding health, physical education and recreation in America also do survey about skill interrogatory and norms. Skill test and norms always help the players to rate their performance in the game and to picture an impetus to improvements. Need of rating of Handball players.4Need of evaluation of Handball PlayersAs comparability to other games handball is most popular and fastest game in the knowledge base. It demand good physical organize, physical fitness and skil l. For handball game it is quite ambitious to pronounce the player because coach, pickax committee, physical education teachers have to consider the above aspects. military rank of the players is the important process for teaching and coaching, finished evaluation, a coach, option committee members, physical educator and players know the draw backs of their games. At the time of evaluation coach advice players to improve the draw backs in their games. Hence, the coach, alternative committee member and players must be aware of some evaluation techniques, which enable him to round the fitness and skill objectively and classify them ab initio as well as by measuring the progress made by them.Handball players require good physical fitness, good body structure and good fundamental skill of handball for top performance in handball.5 Evaluation of sportsman is a must to identify their area of weaknesses and figureed training model for improving specific athlete deficiencies. It a lso helps to follow the athlete improvement during training and game session. There are various tests for physical activities and games which help to measure the playing abilities of the players in different games. The test helps the players to evaluate their performance, predict future performance, indicate weakness, place the athlete in inhibit training programme or training group, motivate the athlete and to domiciliate an incentive for improvement. The tests also help the flight simulators, coaches, selection committee to measure players performance and to evaluate their own coaching procedure and programme. These, tests should be used For the selection process, but unfortunately at the time of selection, selection committee just now consider performance of the player on the basis of single game situation as a selection criterion. Unavailability of proper norms for selection of senior handball players in Maharashtra and in India is one of the main the reason of it. So the res earcher has decided to conduct the canvas entitled Reforms in the Norms of survival of the fittest procedure for Maharashtra State Senior Level Male Players in Handball Game1.1. score of HandballAncient HistoryGame including the hand and a ball looks back on a unbelievably long tradition. Even if the rules and the way of playing were hardly in line with todays handball, the Urania game played by the Greek which had already been mentioned in Homers Odyssey or Harpaston played by the Romans described by Claudius Galenus (AD 110 200) among others whitethorn definitely be characterized as prototype of todays handball. Such precursors also existed in todays Central Europe. Minnesingers Walther von der Vogelweide (1170 1230) sang about a, catch ball game, whereas in the 16th century, the Frank Rabelais described a affable of game in which the hands were used for playing the ball. Another game similar to handball was played by Greenlands Intuits at the end of the eighteenth century . The actual beginnings of the game of handball didnt develop until the end of the 19th century. A alike(p) game was held in Nyborg (Denmark) in 1897. From that point on, fixed rules for ball games played between teams emerged. Games such as Treibball played against or over a border (Grenzball or Raffball, Konigsberger Ball) were well-known. Moreover, there were games towards baskets or against nets (German netball, nevjall. Turmball ), and later on games towards goals without ball control. Players were not allowed to run with the ball and to hold it perennial than triple seconds (Handball 1906 in Sweden, Neuer Raffball, Torball). Further development include games towards goals with ball control. In this case, players were allowed to run three steps with the ball or to hold it for three seconds. A kind of game from the Czech Republic was called Hazena, a form of field handball which already included the division of the playing field into three parts characterizing field handball. However, countries such as Denmark, Germany and Sweden are considered as the real handball pioneers of modern times.6 advance(a) DevelopmentField handball was pushed by German gymnastics teacher so that, alongside handball, it became popular as an alternative to football, especially for women. In 1917, max Heiser formulated the initiative official handball rules for women. Two classs later, Karl Schelenz added the rules for the men. In the 20s, handball became a national sport.On the occasion of a meeting in The Hague (Netherlands) in 1926, the Congress of the planetary Amateur Athletics partnership appointed a commission for the elaboration of international playing rules for field handball. In 1928, the internationalist Amateur Handball Federation (IAHF) was founded in Amsterdam on the occasion of the IX Olympic Games. unrivaled of the foundation members was Avery Brundage (USA) who later became IOC President in 1933 handball was included in the Olympic Programme. At the XI Olympic Games in Berlin, horde Germany won the final and therefore the coin medal in the displace rain in front of an audience of 100.000 people, beating Austria 106. One year after the end of World War II, representatives of eight nations met in Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, and launched the International Handball Federation (IHF). It is considered founded on 11 July 1946. The nations involved in the foundation are Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden and Switzerland. In 1960, the last Womens Outdoor World funding was played whereas the last Mens Outdoor World backup took place in 1996. At the XXXII Congress in Cairo, which has been the last official one so far, 167 member federations were counted. By now, handball is being played in 183 countries and the descend of teams amounts to approximately 800,000.1.2. History of Asian Handball FederationThe march of the Asian Handball Federation had began when the Martyr Shaikh Fahad Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah h ead of the capital of capital of capital of Kuwaiti delegation to the seventh Asian games, capital of Iran Iran 1974, presented a motion to the Executive Committee of the Asian Gamess requesting recognition of the handball game and also formation of the Asian Handball Federation. Consequently, in 1976, Handball Federations from all over Asia were invited to realize the establishment meeting during which representatives from fourteen Asian countries. Since its establishment in year 1974, AHF activities have been progressively expanding as its strategy has been focused on development and expansion of the handball game in the Asian continent. AHF members have been also actively involved in the remarkable achievements throughout the way.7 tabular array 1.1 result of Asian Handball ChampionshipSr. No formHost express of matter grand silver tan11977Kuwait lacquerKoreaChina21979China lacquerChinaKuwait31983KoreaKoreaJapanKuwait41987JordanKoreaJapanKuwait51989ChinaKoreaJapanKuwait61991 JapanKoreaJapanChina71993BahrainKoreaKuwaitJapan81995KuwaitKuwaitKoreaBahrain92000JapanKoreaChinaJapan102002IranKuwaitQatarSaudi- Arabia112004QatarKuwaitJapanQatar122006ThailandKuwaitKoreaQatar112008IranKoreaKuwaitSaudi- Arabia142010LebanonKoreaBahrainJapan152012JeddahProposed1.3. World ChampionshipIn 1938, the first Indoor Handball World Championship was played in the Deutschlandhalle in Berlin. This first Tournament was held with only four participating teams. The first field handball WC was held in July of the same year in Berlin and other German cities, which was also won by Germany who were then Olympic champions (in 1936) and dual world champions. Both WC tournaments were administered by the IAHF (International Amateur Handball Federation), the forerunner organization of 1946 founded IHF, which was founded in 1928, and meant to be celebrational events for the l0th birthday of the Organization.The first World Championship took place in Germany in 1938, involving four teams from Europe. Throughout their history, the World Championships has been dominated by European teams any medals have yet to be won by non-Europeans.8Table 1.2Result of Handball World ChampionshipsSr. No.YearHost Country favorableSilverBronze11938GermanyGermanyAustriaSweden21954SwedenSwedenWest GermanyCzechoslovakia31958East GermanySwedenCzechoslovakiaGermany41961West GermanyRomaniaCzechoslovakiaSweden51964CzechoslovakiaRomaniaSwedenCzechoslovakia61967SwedenCzechoslovakiaDenmarkRomania71978DenmarkWest GermanySoviet trade unionEast Germany81982West GermanySoviet unificationYugoslaviaPoland91986SwitzerlandYugoslaviaHungaryEast Germany101990CzechoslovakiaSwedenSoviet UnionRomania111993SwedenRussiaFranceSweden121995IcelandFranceCroatiaSweden111997JapanRussiaSwedenFrance141999EgyptSwedenRussiaYugoslavia152001FranceFranceSwedenYugoslavia162003PortugalCroatiaGermanyFrance172005TunisiaSpainCroatiaFrance182007GermanyGermanyPolandDenmark192009CroatiaFranceCroatiaPoland202011SwedenFranceDenmarkSpa in212011SpainProposed1.4. Handball in OlympicsAfter 1936, field handball was no longer played at the games Indoor handball was presented for the first time at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich.The introduction of womens handball to the Games took place in 1976 in Montreal. The Soviet Union won this first womens Olympic competition, taking home two gold medals after the 11-team mens competition and the six-team womens one.9Table 1.3Result of Handball Olympics ChampionshipsSr.No.YearHost CountryGoldSilverBronze11936BerlinGermanyAustriaSwitzerland21948-1968 Not include in Olympic programme31972MunichYugoslaviaCzechoslovakiaRomania41976MontrealSoviet UnionRomaniaPoland51980MoscowEast GermanySoviet UnionRomania61984Los AngelesYugoslaviaWest GermanyRomania71988SeoulSoviet Union southwest KoreaYugoslavia81992BarcelonaUnified TeamSwedenSpine91996AtlantaCroatiaSwedenFrance102000SydneyRussiaSwedenSpain112004AthensCroatiaGermanyRussia122008BeijingFranceIcelandSpain132012LondonFranceSwedenCroati a1.5. History of Handball in IndiaIn India, handball has become famous among other sports played at Schools, colleges, university, clubs and professionally. It is world second fastest game and always considered as a high fitness, perception, speed, timing, accuracy and agility. With its rules and regulation and playing set up is being popularly played in India. It is a devoting and challenging game. Indian athletes also represent National and International competitions in this game but lake of scientific Training, Knowledge, dirty politics, quota system research based information the results of handball players are very poor in international area. Handball entered India in early seventies with filed recital (11 a side) outdoor game and Indian handball federation was formed in 1971, with 16 states as its units was played in its infant days in India, first senior national championship held at Haryana (Rohatak). Soon it imbue all over the country but state like Punjab, Haryana, Jammu -Kashmir, A.P and Maharashtra have edge over other states as far as standards and popularity of handball in India, On interpret IHF 33 units (States, Boards, Steel arranges and Railways) Punjab Police, function C.I.C.F, C.R.P.F Professional team which dominated handball Scene the country.The place of this game in Asian was given in 1982 which was held in India at Delhi. This game was included all India-Inter University in 1979-80 and first All India Inter University held at Nagpur, Nagpur university won the Gold Medal, Silver Medal was won by Punjab, Bronze Medal was won by Osmania and Kurukshetra University got fourth place in men section. Women section Nagpur University P.A.U. University and Bombay University were bagged Gold, Silver and Bronze accordingly. Handball was included is a National games. run, Punjab, Haryana, Jammu-Kashmir, Kerala, A.P and Maharashtra these states have given many International players to India. Indian team has put downd at various international to urnaments. Out of which India could win Second youth kingdom handball championship held at Dhaka in 1995 after being runner up in 1990 at youthful Delhi, youth team also got second Place in 1997 commonwealth youth handball championship held at Edinburgh U.K. Apart from participation of India team some in club teams like run, Punjab police, SAI, Gujarat and National Handball academy club participate in championship held at Malaysia, southeasterly Africa and Cochin. service Handball team participated in world military Games. Punjab Police team remained runners up in South Africa. After infusion of handball events in police arena, it has generated more competition in national and state championships. Presently services team is the senior national champion. Similarly handball was introduced Maharashtra in 1972 at Nagpur and first handball state championship held at Nagpur. Since handball is most popular team game in Maharashtra and provides many prize International players. Present ly Pune District team was champion of State Championship.10Table 1.4Result of Handball National ChampionshipsSr. No.YearHost CountryGoldSilverBronze1.1972RothakHaryanaA.P.2.1973HyderabadA.P.U.P.3.1973PunePunjabBiharJ K4.1975BangaloreBiharA.P.J K5.1976JamshedpurI.A.F.Bihar6.1977NizamabadI.A.F.Bihar7.1978ShrinagarI.A.F.J K8.1979HyderabadI.A.F.A.P.9.1979LudhianaI.A.F.MaharashtraJ K10.1980JammuI.A.F.Maharashtra11.1981HyderabadI.A.F.J K12.1982DelhiI.A.F.MaharashtraA.P.13.1983Wardha14.1985QuilonI.A.F.A.P.Punjab15.1986BhadreswarServicesMaharashtraJ K16.1986BilaspurServicesSteel limitsPunjab17.1987J KServicesSteel PlantPunjab18.1988JaipurServicesSteel PlantHaryana19.1990HissarJ KServicesHaryana20.1991BhilaiServicesSteel PlantPunjab21.1992ShimogaServicesSteel PlantJ K22.1992BilaspurServicesSteel PlantJ K23.1993Ludhiana24.1994LucknowServicesSteel PlantU.P.25.1994JamshedpurServicesKarnatakaPunjab26.1995WarangalServicesPunjabSteel Plant27.1996NagpurServicesPunjabSteel Plant28.1997Jal landar29.1997TrivandrumServicesSteel PlantPunjab30.1998VijayawadaServicesM.P.J K31.1999PuneServicesRajasthanM.P.32.2000Calicut33.2001BhilaiM.P.ServicesPunjab34.2002JammuJ KChhattisgarhServices35.2003BhilaiChhattisgarhRajasthanServices36.2004RenikotPunjabChhattisgarhServices37.2004JamshedpurJharkhandSSCBChhattisgarh38.2005BhilaiChhattisgarhKeralaPunjab39.2006LudhianaPunjabSSCBChhattisgarh40.2007BilaspurPunjabSSCBChhattisgarh41.2008BangaloreSSCBChhattisgarhPunjab42.2009VishakhapatnamSSCBPunjabChhattisgarh43.2010KolkataChhattisgarhSSCBPunjab44.2011IndoreSSCBPunjabDelhi1.6. Statement of the ProblemsOn the basis of overall observations, begin and general discussions which have been made with experts, referees, national and international players and reviewing of literature on the same theme, it is opined that there is an essential need to frame standard criteria for the selection of efficient and suitable players for handball game to be played at state or national level. Accordingly th e present researcher has designed the following statement of problems1) Selection of players only on the basis of individual performance in a particular match is not always desirable.2) In the selection process, basic motor qualities and skills are the most important factors to be considered in order to improve overall performance of the team in the long run.3) There is no any criterion devised on the date for senior handball players in Maharashtra to provide guidelines for selection of suitable players.1.7. Significance of the studyThere are an only a few research studies that have been conducted on this direction in India. Hence, as a serious shortage of research on it, the present study is an immense important to handball coaches, trainer and physical education teachers for making effective coaching and training as well as framing strategies for selecting suitable handball players in a team. It pass on be proved so fruitful to the selection committees to assess and evaluate the individual performance of handball players to use them for state, national level handball teams.The study whitethorn also provide an opportunity and encouragement to the sports talent to go through the standard norms and criteria for their practice in order to enhance their performance for acquiring selection in state, national team.Besides, the study is to provide an opportunity to research fellow to conduct further research in new proportionality in the competitive arena.1.8. Objectives of the study1. To identify the performance variables of team handball.2. To measure selected Morphological, Physical Fitness components andHandball skills.3. To develop the Norms for Senior handball State level players.4. To design grading scales for Senior handball State level players.5. To find out Physical Fitness and Skill status of senior handball players on the basis of developed norms.1.9. Hypotheses1. The subjects have performed the fitness and skill test truthfully and with full capacity .2. The subjects are medically, physically and psychologically fit for tests conducted by the researcher.3. Maharashtra State Handball Association lead permit to conduct the test on the subjects.1.10. Delimitation of the study1. This study is restricted to male senior handball players only.2. This study measures the results of selected morphological, physical fitness and skills only.3. The study geographical restricted to the Maharashtra state only.1.11. Limitations of the study1. The subjects covered under the study from various districts and regions of Maharashtra states having different economical status, diet and training. These are highly unfeasible to control, hence are limitation to study.2. Heredity and environmental background of subjects whitethorn affect their performance in matches and they have not been controlled. .1.12. DefinitionsIn order to clarify the further discussion in the study, the following terms have adopted.Norms 11Norms are performance standards based o n analysis of tons. They are developed by collecting scores for a large number of individuals of the same gender and similar age, experience, ability and other such characteristics. Norms may be developed at the National, state or local level. Percentile, T-scores and Z-scores are forms of norms.Pcrcentile12For the current study the percentile refers to a point in a distribution of scores below which a given percentage of the scores fall.Morphology13It is a systematic study of external structure and form.Standing Height14It is the supreme height of the individual when standing erect on a plane surface with his head and face in Frankfurt horizontal plane. It is the unbent height of the subject (bare-footed) up to the point vertex. It is generally in meters adjacent to half of the centimetre.Body weight15Weight of the nude human body with assoil bowels, is known as a body weight. It is measured by the help of weighing machine, is recorded in kilogram nearest to half of kilogram. Physical fitness16It is the optimum ability to excel in physical strength, stamina and litheness with respect to status, development and maintenance (SDM). Physical fitness has also defined as ones capacity to perform routine tasks with ease without any wear thin having sufficient extra energy for leisure time activities (WHO) hefty Strength17Muscular strength may be defined as the maximal muscular force or tension used in the creation or prevention of the movement in one maximal effort of a muscle group.Muscular Endurance18

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