Monday, April 1, 2019
Challenges for Businesses in the Caribbean
Ch completelyenges for Businesses in the Caribbean1.1 Introduction castrate, accord to the adage, is al ports constant quantity. Embracing transmit potentiometer be a dispute to modification agents.Many authors of swap have maintained that change fails because of flawed modes, or in the case of John Kotter, the failure of focusing to brighten that the process can and often do, take old age to come to fruition. prof Kotter (Kotter, 1996), proposed an eight-step model for ensuring change initiatives succeeder. Many organizations, especially solid ground-owned corporations, were born place of legacy bureaucratic systems and let on that the workers have acquired cognition and skill-set that surpasses that of the management who h sometime(a) on to archaic methods. Such organizations are prime candidates for transformational interjection.1.2 Purpose of the StudyThis mickle looks into the challenges that faces emerging businesses in spite of appearance the Caribbean reac h, with an aim to full(prenominal)light issues that are critical for egress and transition. Focus is placed on complexity as a device driver of change as a vessel for accommodating interactive initiatives inwardly systems and agents of change. The study exit explore the ways in which researchers and academics have adopt various models and theoretical methodologies to catalyze change, some with limited success others with high success rate. The region has been able to adapt to changes throughout the years except modern change initiatives calls for unique, if not unorthodox methods to productively execute much(prenominal) transitions. This research attempts to apply such novel ways to bring out the best in management of organizations.1.3 Problem StatementFor decades academics and researchers have wrestled with the occupation of change and have even proposed theoretical models explaining their different methods. It has been ascertained that everyplace 70% of all change initiat ive have failed, (Higgs Rowland, 2005), (Beer Nohria, 2000). Change hinges round behavioural patterns in people people have to consciously longing change in order that it works. The past methods applied to organizations have turn up to be inadequate, or very complex in nature. John Kotter in an article in the Harvard Business Review, made it clear that change is a large-scale process that takes time. This process goes through stages and any significant demerit in any stage can lead to the collapse of the correct change initiative (Kotter, 1995).An attempt at change management at the airports in Trinidad and Tobago entitled Institutional Strengthening Project failed after several(prenominal) years at change management. There is no single close for the failure, scarcely a series of complex interrelated processes and situations that lead to a total breakdown of the effort.I propose that using models that manage change from a multi-faceted set out that caters for complexity, w ill ultimately believe positive transformational instrument in the organisations.1.4 Purpose of the questionThis exploratory study will establish the phenomenon that either foster a change climate or actively deter the process in dynamic organizations. A qualitative approach would be used. Many theorist including (Senge, 1990 Morgan, 1996) in systems theory, envisioned that the organizations tend towards maintaining homeostasis, however failed to show what dynamics occurs in continual change (Ford, 2008). More over, system theory (Von Bertalanffy, 1965) enabled the practictioner to view the organization in a more(prenominal) holistic manner more like an organism, rather than a machine (Ford, 2008).In many growing states, the airport environment, which is highly dynamic has seen the phenomenon of rapid, constant changes and evolvement. The airports in Trinidad and Tobago were chosen and HyperResearch software was employed to manipulate the data.1.5 Significance of the StudyT he research into the behaviour, culture, management style, of state organizations such as airports and port in Trinidad and Tobago specifically and by extention, the wider Caribbean area can be a launching pad for significant inroads into the taste of dynamics that are emerging in organizations of these types.The research would lead the way in identifying the strengths or weaknesses of applied management styles, and the way that many management paradigms are applied to such dynamic organizations. The cultivation obtained will be used for practitioners to understand the emergent phenomenon inwardly the organization the way to push rather than deter changes by agents of change. State administrators and management practitioners would be give the tools to deal with a changing environment.The organization can benefit from a lower turnover rate and higher output as employees find that their needs are now significantly addressed both(prenominal) their hygenic and move wishes (Chowdh ary Prakas, 2005).Chapter 2 Literature review2.1 Why Change Management?The innocent and scientific management theories and to a lesser extent, the systems theories sought to minimize the uplift of changes. These changes were seen as movement away from homeostasis. What modern theorists advocate is the embracing of non-equilibrium forces within an open-style organization. According to (Ford, 2008), an open organization interacts with its environment, both internally and externally, and between and within groups.This study will focus on the new way of collecting, using, and disseminating information and processes within the organization to cope with, foresee, even cause changes that whitethorn touch off such organization forward.Systems theorists came to realize that organizations were to be looked at more as organism, rather than machines. Systems, according to renowned academic (Von Bertalanffy, 1965), all shared prevalent attributes irrespective of their kind, the nature of their components and the forces between them. All systems were seen to consist of an environment, components, interrelatedness, negative entropy, equifinality, homeostasis, has a central purpose and has synergy. Systems theory describes the organization as depicting the apply systems mechanisms positive and negative feedback loops that maintain the system at some desire determination or a state of homeostasis (Ford, 2008). Ford noted that both systems theory and classic management maintained similar ontological stances when referring to turbulence and managing change. Both seek to maintain an equilibrium state. They seek to reduce or absorb the effect of the turbulence causing the disruption to the system.Kurt Lewins Three Phases Change Management Model, is a theory that attempts to give the fundamentals of linear change. token 1. shows Lewins 3-Step model of change.Lewin proposed that the change practitioner, firstly, unfreezes the current processes, mindset or beliefs that c ome through. This is usually by introducing a new concept, idea or challenge that allows people to see the need for change. Secondly, transitioning follows. This is the introduction of new actions, processes or way of doing things. There may be times when this is bombarded with confusion and caution as people may not have clear understanding of where to go or how to tick things done a particular way. Finally, there is the process of refreezing. This process is the quartz of the new processes as the accepted norm. This is a period where there is constant reiteration of the new system. This is crucial since people may revert to their old ways.Another method that is widely used is the ADKAR model. The method is different from the Kurt Lewin method only in its emphasis on the change at the individuals level. ADKAR posits that successful organizational change is only possible when everyone can transition successfully (Connelly, 2011). The model has a sequential five-step process as dep icted in the figure 2 below.Many researchers believe that changes occur on cardinal dimensions. The business and the people dimensions and changes to each dimension should occur simultaneously for success (PROSCI Inc, 2013).Figure 2 shows this process.Change management, according to Fred Nickols (2010), brings to mind four definitions the childbed of managing change an area of professional practice a body of knowledge and a control mechanism.Managing change can be further subdivided into a planned or systematic fashion. This is simply implementing planned change into an living organization. Unplanned change is the response to environmental issues in which the organization has slight or no control.As an area of professional practice, many change agents and consultants have set up shops with expertise that cater for changes within organizations. As a body of knowledge, there are models, tools, techniques, skill-sets, and applied practices that make up this area of management. Acco rding to Nickols, the subject matter for change management is drawn from a wide line of professions and studies psychology, sociology, economics, business administration, industrial and system engineering, and gentlemans gentleman and organizational behaviours. As a control mechanism, many organizations keep tabs on the alterations specially in the systems used. These version controls as seen to be part of the change management systems at many workplace.2.2 The Pitfalls for Change ManagementRandal Ford(2008) posits that an organization that has in condition(p) how to manage continuous change because continuous change is part of its goal and necessary to its survival would prove invaluable in providing robust confirmable data as a living heuristic. The fact is, there exist no solid data to support the fact that there will be success if change management is modelled on the complex accommodative systems approach.In looking at companies that have profitably survived over the years it is evident that they used some systems approach as they continually remolded their future(a) as the years progressed. The Coca Cola company, for example, showed its resilience as it headed the field for many years and changed to accommodate the changing environment. Google has been relatively new but has applied the model of adapting changes.Change do not come easy. community resist change for a variety of reasons by quitting, overt and privateness hostility, passive compliance, strikes, and even giving reasons for the resistance. Paul Lawrence of the Harvard Business Review (Lawrence, 1969), contends that roughly people do not resist technical changes but do so for social changes. Professor Rosabelle Moss-Kanter (Moss-Kanter, 2012) of the Harvards Business School, in her blog elicit that change should not come as a surprise but should be introduced tactically by change agents. She stated that people prefer to be mired in misery than to head towards an unknown. Change can make people feel that they have lost control over their territory. Because of the ripple effects of change the agents must reach out to all stakeholders in an effort to lessen this ripple effect. Dr. Moss Kanter contended that it is better for management to be honest, fair, transparent, and fast in any change initiative.3.1 IntroductionPrimary and substitute research were applied in achieving the objectives of this dissertation. Due to the nature of the data to be collected and analysed it was expedient to use a qualitative approach.3.2 Primary ResearchQuestionnaires were used with standardize closed questions. Direct interviews were conducted as well as the use of focus groups focus groups where open ended questions were used.