Monday, April 1, 2019

Nine Characteristics Of Policy Making Social Work Essay

Nine Characteristics Of indemnity Making Social Work EssayIntroductionEver since the composition of Sir William Beveridge The Social insurance policy and Allied Services invoice was make at the end of 1942 has been seen as the cornerst wholeness of the Welf argon State as it indentified that content insurance contributions would insure that the severalize would provided friendly protection so that the creation would be saved from the cradle to the grave. This was the ideological aim by Beveridge to purify productivity our standing in the global market at a quantify when the world had be financially damaged by the infringe that occurred during World War 2.This report was the basis of well-being congest by the state and the end of the poor lawThis essay will be aspect at the Welf be repossess act introduced by the bond political relation and the implied alt datetions of the domesticise in which the transition of the population being protected by the state from crad le to grave towards a variety show the nether the statement on the DWP website to make the gets and levy credit organisation of ruless fairer and simpler byCreating the counterbalance incentives to stun more batch into workProtecting the more or less dangerous in our decreeDelivering fairness to those claiming service and to the tax manufactureer.This essay will fancy as to whether or non these flips to the offbeat act has signalled a neuter in the direction for anti- s fag endtiness policies or whether these diverges have already been coming and if the iron out has highlighted and nowadaysed a diverge of direction in anti meagerness polices in a more familiar light.It can be said that the usurpation of the global credit crunch and subsequent enchantmenting point has played a contributory set off in the changes that atomic number 18 taking place and has maybe garnered more public support in light of the squeeze that the recession has caused on the purses of working households.S pull downty years ago, with Britain locked in battle against the armies of Nazi Germany, one of the most brilliant public servants of his generation was hard at work on a report that would change our national vivification for ever.Invited by Churchills judicature to consider the recognize of upbeat once advantage was won, Sir William Beveridge set step up to slay the five giants of Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness.When his report was published at the end of 1942, it became the cornerstone of a wellbeing state that support its citizens from cradle to grave, banishing the poverty and starvation of the Depression, and laying the foundations for the great post-war boom.For years the benefit state was one of the glories of Britains democratic landscape, a monument to the generosity and decency of valet nature, offering a hand up to those unlucky enough to be born at the bottom.Nine characteristics of Policy MakingFORWARD weighing atThe insurance policy- reservation process cl archaean defines outcomes that the policy is designed to achieve and, where appropriate, takes a want-term hear based on statistical trends and informed predictions of sociable, political, stinting and cultural trends, for at least five years into the future of the in all probability effect and impact of the policy. The fol down(p)ing points set up a forward looking forward motion A statement of mean outcomes is alert at an archaeozoic stage Contingency or scenario planning Taking into grievance the Governments long term strategy character of DTIs Foresight programme and/or separate forecasting workOUTWARD LOOKINGThe policy- reservation process takes explanation of influencing factors in the national, European and international situation draws on experience in few other countries considers how policy will be communicated with the public. The following points demonstrate an outward looking prelude Makes use of OECD, EU mechanis ms etc Looks at how other countries bundlet with the issue Recognises regional variation within England Communications/presentation strategy prepared and implementedINNOVATIVE, FLEXIBLE AND CREATIVEThe policy-making process is flexible and innovative, doubting established ways of dealing with social functions, encouraging new and creative ideas and where appropriate, making established ways work better. Wherever possible, the process is open to comments and suggestions of others. Risks are identified and actively managed. The following points demonstrate an innovative, flexible and creative approach Uses alternatives to the usual ways of working (brainstorming sessions etc) Defines success in terms of outcomes already identified Consciously assesses and manages risk Takes steps to create management structures which assist new ideas and effective team working Brings in people from orthogonal into policy teamEVIDENCE-BASEDThe advice and decisions of policy makers are based upon the best available evidence from a wide range of sources all key stakeholders are involved at an early stage and without the policys development. All applicable evidence, including that from specialists, is available in an accessible and meaningful form to policy makers. observe points of an evidence based approach to policy-making include Reviews existing look into bursters new research Consults relevant experts and/or used internal and orthogonal consultants Considers a range of properly costed and appraised optionsINCLUSIVEThe policy-making process takes measure of the impact on and/or meets the needs of all people today or indirectly affected by the policy and involves key stakeholders directly. An comprehensive approach may include the following aspects Consults those responsible for service manner of speaking/implementation Consults those at the receiving end or otherwise affected by the policy Carries out an impact assessment estimateks feed impale on policy from recipients and effort line retrovertersJOINED UPThe process takes a holistic view looking beyond institutional boundaries to the administrations strategic objectives and seeks to establish the ethical, moral and levelheaded base for policy. There is consideration of the appropriate management and organisational structures needed to deliver cross- stinger objectives. The following points demonstrate a joined-up approach to policy-making Cross cutting objectives clearly defined at the outset Joint working arrangements with other departments clearly defined and well unders withald Barriers to effective joined up clearly identified with a strategy to overcome them Implementation considered part of the policy making processREVIEWExisting/established policy is constantly follow-uped to ensure it is really dealing with problems it was designed to solve, taking account of associated effects elsewhere. Aspects of a reviewing approach to policy-making include Ongoing review programme in place with a range of meaningful procedure measures Mechanisms to allow service deliverers /customers to provide feedback direct to policy makers set up Redundant or failing policies scrappedEVALUATIONSystematic evaluation of the military capability of policy is built into the policy making process. Approaches to policy making that demonstrate a trueness to evaluation include Clearly defined resolve for the evaluation set at outset Success criteria defined center of evaluation built into the policy making process from the outset Use of pilots to influence final outcomesLEARNS LESSONSLearns from experience of what works and what does not. A learning approach to policy development includes the following aspects Information on lessons learned and great practice disseminated Account available of what was done by policy-makers as a result of lessons learned Clear distinction drawn between ill fortune of the policy to impact on the problem it was intended to resolve and managerial/ operational failures of implementation.Conservative Thatcher EraIt can be said that characteristics of the sweat and Conservative party remain constant, wherein there is a greater concentrate on for Conservative government to reduce State dependency and a glossiness in the view of Thatcherism I think we have gone through a period when too many children and people have been understandinged(p) to understand I have a problem, it is the Governments job to cope with it or I have a problem, I will go and get a grant to cope with it I am homeless, the Government mustiness(prenominal) house me and so they are casting their problems on society and who is society? There is no such thing There are several(prenominal) men and women and there are families and no government can do anything except through people and people look to themselves first. It is our duty to look later on ourselves and then also to help look after our live and life is a reciprocal business and people have got th e entitlements too much in mind without the obligations. (Interview for Womans Own (no such thing as society) with journalist Douglas Keay. Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 23September 1987. Retrieved 10April 2007.)This ideology is equal with policy changes such as the introduction of poll tax in which everyone was expected to contribute the same amount of tax regardless of income or wealth and is seen as a poverty creating policy. It could be said that the era of Tory power between 1979 and 1997 was a period when actions were being implemented to deal with the crisis of upbeat within the UK. It had been suggested that between 1951 and 1979, levels of controversy over anti-poverty policies were, arguably, not curiously high. Conservative ideologists provided had much to say about the case for speech market conditions more effectively to bear on distribution of social services, but only in the housing field had Conservative governments interpreted steps that represented major respon ses to this viewpoint. Labour disappointed many of its supporters, who well identified the party with the advancement of the Welfare State. A succession of scotch crises limited the money available for new anti-poverty polices. Yet both parties, even before the Thatcher government came into power had considerably advanced public expending particularly on social policies, to the point where some economists argued that this kind of expenditure had become inflationary force, limiting the scope for new wealth creating privy investment. This is a view politicians began to take seriously by the 1970s, with the most staggering growth in seen in public employment and social security transfer payments.Although it is tempting to attribute the change in climate for social policy in the UK to the Conservative led government of 1979, the changes had been gradually acclivitous before that date, and those changes were rooted as much in economics as in ideology. Keynesian economic managemen t techniques involving manipulation of levels of government disbursal and taxation were employed to try to retain full employment without inflation. This hitherto was not possible with monetarists school of thought being that the government must control the money supply and let economic forces bring the system under control (Friedman, 1962, 1977). The government at the time when Thatcher took office were doubtlessly hostile to state social policy. This hostility was rooted in a commitment to privatization, the curbing of public services and attacking trade unions. The government was untroubled by the evidence that such an approach was generating change magnitude poverty. condescension the aims to control social policy expenditure, it nevertheless grew as a whole, with spending on the National Health Services and Welfare continually increasing. See Glennerster and Hills (1998) for a detailed analysis of those trends.It was during that era that they changed supplementary benefit w hichwas a means-tested benefit in the United Kingdom, paid to people on low incomes, whether or not they were classed as unemployed such as aiders, the egest and superstar-parents. Introduced in November 1966, it replaced the earlier system of discretionary National Assistance payments and was intended to top-up other benefits, hence its name. It was paid weekly by theDHSS, throughgirocheques andorder books, or fortnightly by the Unemployment Benefit Office by giro and cashed at localpost offices. This was subsequently abolished and replaced by income support and housing benefit by the Thatcher government and also signalled the change for the provision of sickness absence for the first 28 weeks from National Insurance to a Statutory Sick Pay scheme run by employers.The 1986 Social Security Act extended the scope for contracting out from the SERP (State Earnings Related Pension Scheme) which is at present the basic state pension allowing the growth of private pension plans. The f amily income supplement was replaced by family credit which went onto spring up into tax credits under the modernistic Labour government. Under the Thatcher government was a total restructure of the benefits system, which included, along the ones mentioned previously that change of unemployment benefit to job seekers perimeter to emphasise the behaviour required and make allowance tested means after the first six months.Other changes make by the government at that time included the transformation of the invalidness benefit to incapacity benefit, aiming to force all but severely handicapped, on a lower floor pension age, to become job seekers. One of the most complex pieces of legislating was the state support for single parent families, which was designed to secure make upd contributions from absent parents (normally fathers) through the peasant Support Act of 1991.LabourThe Blair government when it came to Welfare declared themselves as the government for Welfare improve wit h a commitment to a stable public expenditure programme, but the intent of social security costs to rise regardless of policy change which is a problem also faced by the Thatcher government, which in turn limited New labours room to manoeuvre. Labour saw the solution to this plight by increasing employment the stimulation of labour-market participation by single parents and the disabled as well as the unemployed is central to their social security policy strategy This is seen trough the introduction of working tax credit and their wellbeing to work programmes for young people under 25.The most significant aim of New Labour was to annul child poverty and this was done with schemes such as child tax credit, but perchance the biggest change introduced to tackle poverty was the National Minimum wage, which was transcending and ensured that everyone was entitled to a basic pay regardless of job role and prevented employers from exploiting employees, there has now however been greate r argument for the introduction of a backup wage, which is something that the present labour party actively support, with current opposition leader Ed Milliband and former Mayor of London Ken Livingstone supporters of a national living wage.It is worth remembering that when Tony Blair came to power in 1997, he claimed that we had reached the limits of the publics willingness simply to storage an unreformed well-being system through ever higher taxes and spending. Urgent welfare reforms, he said, would cut the bills of social failure, releasing money for schools and hospitals.Welfare Reform 2012 The Policy AgendaThe main elements of the welfare reform act areThe introduction of public Credit to provide a single aerodynamic payment that will cleanse work incentivesA stronger approach to trim back fraud and error with tougher penalties for the most serious offencesA new claimant commitment showing clearly what is expected of claimants while giving protection to those with the superlative needsReforms to Disability Living Allowance, through the introduction of the Personal liberty Payment to meet the needs of disabled people todayCreating a fairer approach to Housing Benefit to bring stability to the market and improve incentives to workDriving out abuse of the Social Fund system by giving greater power to local authoritiesReforming usance and Support Allowance to make the benefit fairer and to ensure that help goes to those with the sterling(prenominal) needChanges to support a new system of child support which puts the interest of the child first.This changes signal possibly the hugest shake up to the welfare act in one fell swoop, it can be argued however that New Labour were already implementing changes to reduce the welfare bill, but not in a way as direct as the alignment government, with one of the main focus being to reduce poverty and eradicate child poverty which is something that this essay will touch on pass on on in the essay.Britain no w spends7.2 per cent of GDP on its welfare system, and the costs of supporting the, supposedly, needy continue to rise.As the Whitehall empire grows, drowning the impressive intentions of welfare in red tape, so too do the deed who chose to abuse the system.the turn against welfare is unprecedented. In previous times of austerity, public attitudes have always remained remarkably generous. Even in the straitened late Seventies, for example, seven out of ten people told pollsters they would like to see higher taxes to pay for higher social spending. The truth is that we have reached a watershed.To look after the weak is the first duty of any decent government to furiousness them would be unconscionable.Embarrassingly, Britain now has the highest proportion of working-age people on disability benefit in the developed world. And while just 3per cent of Japanese people and 5per cent of Americans live in householdswhere no one works, the figure in Britain is 13per cent.The people who really lose from this, incidentally, are those who are genuinely disabled. They deserve boundless public sympathy instead, thank to the abuse of the system, they are too often treated with scepticism.But scum bag all this lies a deeper issue. Beveridge designed the welfare state for a tightly knit, deeply patriotic and overwhelmingly working-class society, dominated by the atomic family.Though millions of people had grown up in intense poverty, they were steeped in a culture of working-class respectability and driven by an nigh Victorian work ethic. In the world of the narrow terrace back streets, deliberate idleness would have been virtually unthinkable.It could be said that the welfare reform might not necessarily be a change in direction for anti-poverty policies, but a policy implemented to change the mind set of a nation that has transformed from one where people thought about what they could contribute towards their own nation especially at a time of war, to a nation where certain individuals, bearing in mind a small minority of people believe they deserve more from the state without having to earn it.The key factors of welfare reform is worldwide credit which will be an all encompassing payment that incorporates extensive majority of out-of-work and housing benefits that households can receive.Poverty Relative and Absolute tyke poverty Prominent reduction target. Major tax benefit reforms benefiting low-income families with children.Working-age poverty Policy focus on worklessness, not poverty in itself. Policies aimed at employment and income at work.Employment Clearest initial priority. Action through New Deals and active policy towards unemployed.Political participation Some aspects of constitutional reform and parts of Social Exclusion Unit (SEU) agenda for neighbourhood renewal. friendship requirements embedded in nearly all policy areas. Targets for volunteering and confidence in institutions.Poor neighbourhoods Major focus of SEU, wit h ambitious overall target. Policies both area-based and for mainstream services.Children and early years Has moved up the agenda with reviews in 1998 and 2004. Large increase in resources.Older people services and long-term incomes Royal Commission on Long Term Care but divided report and responses in England and Scotland. State Second Pension and Pension Credit reforms.The making of Anti-Poverty PoliciesAnti poverty policies Tax credits (Child and working tax credits),Child benefit,housing benefit,council tax benefit,income based JSA and ESA (Job seekers allowance and Employment Support Allowance),Income Support,Universal CreditAnti-poverty policy making Joseph Rowntree FoundationPrior to the Welfare Reform act the focus of policies was that the state help its citizens from the cradle to the grave with welfare support polices introduced throughout which coincided with the introduction of the national health service has been the back and direction of a lot of anti-poverty po lices that have been introduced in which the state takes carry on of those unable to take care of themselves. Countless policies have been introduced in that time that have provided assistance to the elderly, disabled, women, children, unemployed and those with long-term sickness are some of the groups that polices introduce since Beveridges report in 1942 have focused on assisting and helping. Although its not a surprise that ever since the coalition came into government, bearing in mind that the party is dominated by the Tories as the majority party, there manifesto ever since 1979 and the era of Thatcherism has always been to reduce the role of the state and place individuals greater power and responsibility over their own lives.The question has to whether the welfare reform act 2012 has signalled a change in direction for anti-poverty policies is not a straight forward question, with a straight forward answer, it can be suggested that it is important to look at the changes tha t have been taking place, with the welfare bill spiralling out of control, which was something noticed by New Labour when they came into power. polishThe welfare reform act can be seen as change in direction from the description of a nanny state into state that helps those who want to help themselves

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