Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Health Benefits Of Probiotics Biology Essay

health Benefits Of Probiotics Biology EssayDuring the ago two decades probiotic micro-organisms have been widely applied in different types of crossroads each as pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements or forages. Among the latter group fermented dairy farm farm products much(prenominal) as probiotic yoghurt are becoming popular in the food market and the range of much(prenominal) products continues to expand commercially (Manojlovi , Nedovi , Kailasapathy Zuidam, 2010). An increasing demand for probiotic operational foods is principally cod to the plenty of evidence that exists on the verifying personal effects of probiotics on human health. Together with prebiotics, probiotics are often showed to be in force(p) for the treatment or control of several diseases while the enhancement of the insubordinate system and prevention of diarrhea are the main promising health benefits (Roberfroid, 2000).In developing in operation(p) dairy products with probiotics several aspects must be taken into consideration. The main issue is the functional characteristics of probiotics. In order to utilise their proposed health effects probiotic bacterium should be present at a certain level in the products therefore manufacturers must ensure their vi efficiency and excerpt under industrial conditions, during storage and into the final food products. Moreover probiotic bacteria must survive enteric bile acids and withstand gastric pH of the gastrointestinal tract (Saarela, Mogensen, Fonden, Mtt Mattila-Sandholm, 2000). A number of questionable probiotic yoghurt products are sold however studies have shown that very almost meet the FAO/WHO guidelines and their viability is not guaranteed thus several microencapsulation techniques have been developed in order to retain the presence of these organisms into yoghurt matrix and the GI tract. Among these methods, sprayer coating and gel-particle technologies are more often used (Champagne Fustier, 2007). Furth ermore, a impertinently technology called co-encapsulation which refers to encapsulation of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotics together has also shown to have authorisation in up(a) viability of probiotics in yoghurt. The overall objective of this presentation is to get wind at some of the common microencapsulation techniques that are used in payoff of probiotic yoghurt and to address some challenges in this juicy-tech method. regimen science mcgill logo.jpg2. ProbioticsAs defined by FAO and WHO Probiotics are digest micro-organisms which when administered in passable amounts confer a health benefit on the host (World health Organization, 2001). This definition shows two significant characteristics of a probiotic product .The first cardinal is that these products should contain live microorganisms and secondly the live microorganisms must be in an accurate amount to preserve their health benefits (Yildez, 2009).Micro-organisms must have a number of characteristics bef ore they can be considered as probiotics. These include the ability to survive the gastric acid and bile salts of the gastrointestinal tract, colonising in the intestinal mucosa, lack of pathogenicity and the capacity to exert a health alterment on the host. It is unlikely that any one probiotic strain possesses all of these characteristics however, some effective effect on human health must have been show (Tamime, 2005).lie Metchnikoff was the first person who reported a correlation among the long life of the Bulgarian peasants and the consumption of fermented dairy products, he mainly related to lactic acid bacteria. Nowadays, the probiotic bacteria used in functional dairy products mainly belong to Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria genera (Heller, 2001). These bacteria have the ability to improve the microbial balance of the human gut, they antagonize pathogens by making bacteriacide compounds and compete for pathogen binding. Their other functions are changing gut pH, simulat ing immunomodulatory cells and producing lactase (Kopp-Hoolihan, 2001).2.1. Health Benefits of ProbioticsProbiotics have been at the forefront of the development of functional dairy products due to a wide range of desirable health benefits that they promote. Some of these health claims have been supported by research such as improving intestinal tract health, enhancing the immune system, synthesizing and enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients, reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance, decreasing the prevalence of allergy in susceptible individuals, and reducing risk of certain cancers (Kopp-Hoolihan, 2001 Virender Gill, 2009). about of the current studies mainly focus on the following areas inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBS and IBD), allergy and diarrhea.Food light mcgill logo.jpg panel 1 Health benefits of probiotics established in human studies (Apajalahti, Bech Hansen, Friedrich, Schlothauer, Schmid Staudt, 2005)Health BenefitsReferences good of the immune systemK Arunachalam et al.(2000), BL Chiang et.al. (2000)Prevention of allergiesL Pelto et al. (1998),E.Isolauri et.al. (2000), M Kalliomaki et.al.(2001), M Kalliomaki et.al.(2003)Promotion of lactose digestionME Sanders (2000) , P Marteau (2002) , M de Vrese et al. (2001)Regulation of gut mobility(constipation and petulant bowel syndrome)P Marteau et al.(2002), JA Madden et al. (2002) , AS Naidu et al.(1999) , C Koebnick et al. (2001) , T Ogata et al. (1997), M Seki et al.(1978)Protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infectionsM de Vrese (2002) , K Hatakka (2001)instigative Bowel Diseases (IBS and IBD)P Marteau et al.(2002), JA Madden et al. (2002) ,Nobaek et al.(2000),McFarland et al. 2006, McFarland Dublin 2008, Nikfar et al. 2008Prevention and treatment of urogenital tract infectionsM de Vrese (2002), T Kontiokari et al. (2003), G Reid (2001),ME Sanders (2000)Reduction of proud cholesterol levelsME Sanders (1999), MC Bertolami et al. (1999), B Richelsen et al. (1996), G Kiessling et al. (2002)Effectiveness against Helicobacter pylori infectionLJ Fooks et al. (2002), P Marteau et al.(2002), ME Sanders (1999), M de Vrese et al. (2002)Reducing risk of certain cancersY Aso et al. (1992,1995) Y Ohashi et al.(2002)2.2. Probiotics in fermented dairy products2.2.1. yogurtThe consumption of fermented dairy products containing bacterial cultures has long been related to unlike beneficial health effects, and probiotic cultures have had a long association with these types of products. Yoghurt defined as the product of milk fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and streptococcus thermophilus, has a long history of beneficial impact on the well-being of humans (Elli et al., 2006) which makes it a suitable carrier ofFood Science mcgill logo.jpgprobiotic strains. at that place has been a disagreement in considering pure yoghurt as a probiotic product. This disagreement is raised due to the fact that the start er bacteria of yoghurt do not colonize and live in the gastrointestinal system. These bacteria are called transient which means that they do not remain in the GIT for a sufficient time to show probiotic activities however, they have some beneficial activities. All Streptococcus thermophilus and most Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus have a high -galactosidase activity thus yoghurt consumption improves lactose digestion in pot with lactose intolerance disorder furthermore, yoghurt has high numbers of live starters (Guarner, Perdigon, Corthier, Salminen, Koletzko Morelli, 2007). For these reasons the National Yoghurt Association (NYA) has published a position parameter for probiotics in September 2006 that Live and active yoghurt that contains Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus is probiotic food as it provides a beneficial effect related to lactose digestion.(NYA, 2006 )2.2.2. Bio-yoghurtFood industries have been quick to recognize the huge market potential of probiotic bacteria due to the several health benefits provided by them. Adding probiotics as dietary adjuncts to versatile foods and beverages such as cereal bars, juices, cheese, chocolates and frozen yoghurts is becoming an attractive preference for companies that are interested in healthy products (Champagne, Gardner Roy, 2005b). However, the inclusion of probiotics in fermented dairy products plays a principle role as the best carriers of these microorganisms. This is mainly because of the high consumer acceptance of these foods as being healthy and natural carriers of living bacteria. Currently, dairy products especially yoghurtlike products are the largest part of the probiotic market. Around 30% of the global macrocosm buys into the probiotic dairy products regularly.Fermented dairy products promote the healthy jut of probiotics for three reasonsFermented dairy products such as yoghurt already have a positive health image.Consumers are famili ar with the fact that fermented products contain viable microorganisms.The image of yoghurtlike products as healthful foods makes the recommendation of daily consumption of probiotics easier.Food Science mcgill logo.jpgIn recent years one of the most popular dairy products for the delivery of probiotics is bio-yoghurts. This product contains species of Bifidobacterium most commonly Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus casei among lactobacilli in addition to classical yoghurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) (Talwalkar Kailasapathy, 2004).The probiotic bacteria can be added anterior to fermentation, simultaneously with the traditional yoghurt cultures, or after fermentation to the cooled product before packaging.3. Challenges in the development of probiotic yoghurtIn order to exert their health effects, the Intl. Dairy Federation has recommended that the probiotic bacter ia should be at a certain level of at least CFU of live microorganisms per millilitre or gram of product at the time of consumption (Chvarri, Mara n, Ares, Ib ez, Marzo Villarn, 2010 prick Shah, 2007 Organization, 2001 Shah Ravula, 2000 Sultana, Godward, Reynolds, Arumugaswamy, Peiris Kailasapathy, 2000). However, many studies have shown low viability of probiotics in yoghurt. (Table 3) shows some previous reports on the low viability of probiotics in yoghurt.Table 2 Various studies on poor people viability of probiotics in yoghurtLow viability of probiotics in yoghurt

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