Sunday, April 28, 2019

The Neanderthals Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Neanderthals - Essay ExampleThe Neanderthals inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from round 230,000 to 29,000 long time ago (the Middle Palaeolithic and Lower Paleolithic, in the Pleistocene epoch) (Neanderthals 2005). Neanderthals were adapted to cold, as shown by their big humors, short but robust builds and large nose. These features are also observed in juvenile day sub-arctic populations (Neandethals 2005). For many years, there was a vigorous professional debate somewhat whether Neanderthals should be classified as Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. The latter places Neanderthals as a subspecies of Homo sapiens however, recent evidence from mitochondrial DNA studies indicates that Neanderthals were not a subspecies of Homo sapiens (Neanderthals 2005).On average, Neanderthals stood about 1.65m tall (just under 5 6) and were very muscular, comparable to modern weight-lifters (Neanderthals 2005). Their relatively robust stature is intellection to be an adaptation to the cold climate of Europe during the Pleistocene epoch (Neanderthals 2005). Nothing is known about their skin color, the hair, or the shape of soft parts such as eyes, ears, and lips. However, the physical traits that distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans can not be used to distinguish specific Neanderthal populations, from various geographic areas or periods of evolution, from other extinct humans. Also, many of these traits occasionally manifest in modern humans, particularly among sure ethnic groups (Neanderthals 2005). LANGUAGE The Neanderthals dont have complex language as modern humans. In1983, a Neanderthal os hyoideum bone was found at the Kebara Cave in Israel. The hyoid is a small bone that holds the square up of the tongue in place, a requirement to human deliverance and, therefore, its presence seems to imply some talent to speak. Many people believe that even without the hyoid bone evidence, it is obvious that tools as advanced as tho se of the Mousterian Era, attributed to Neanderthals, could not have been developed without cognitive skills encompassing some form of spoken language (Neanderthals 2005). The instal of the Neanderthal tongue was positioned higher in the throat, crowding the mouth somewhat. As a result, Neanderthal speech would most likely have been slow-paced and nasalized.(Neanderthals 2005). HUNTING AND TOOLS The Neanderthals stone tools is called the Mousterian Culture, after a prominent archaeological pose where the tools were first found. Their tool case consisted of sophisticated stone-flakes, task-specific hand axes, and spears. Many of these tools were very sharp (Neanderthals 2005). There is myopic evidence that Neanderthals used antlers, shell, or other bone materials to make tools. However, there is good evidence that they routinely constructed a variety of stone implements. The archaeological record suggests that Neanderthals lived around the edges of forests where they hunted large animals like cherry-red deer, horse and wild cattle. The forests gave them firewood, and materials to construct shelters and spears. (Neandertal 2005) INTELLIGENCETheir brains were roughly 20% larger than the average size of modern humans brain and the structure were identical but arranged in a different manner. Their

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